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Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

For our public reporting purposes, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as a pneumonia (lung infection) occurring in patients in an intensive care unit (ICU), requiring, external mechanical breathing support (a ventilator) intermittently or continuously, through a breathing tube for more than 48 hours.

VAP can develop in patients for many reasons. Because patients are relying on an external machine to breath, their normal coughing, yawning, and deep breath reflexes are suppressed. Further, they may have a depressed immune system, making them more vulnerable to infection. ICU teams have many ways to try to assist patients with these normal breathing reflexes, but despite this, patients are still at risk for developing pneumonia.

Reporting VAP Rates

All hospitals with ICUs required to report into the Critical Care Information System (CCIS) – a centralized data collection system where hospitals report a variety of critical care information – must publicly report the VAP indicator data.


VAP rates 2017

 Reporting Period

 # of Cases

 Rate per 1000 Patient Days

 January - March


 0.00% per 1000 patient days

 April - June


0.00% per 1000 patient days 

 July - September


0.00% per 1000 patient days

 October - December



Ontario hospitals are posting their quarterly VAP rate and case count for those infections acquired in their facility, using the following formula:

total # of ICU cases of VAP after 48 hours of mechanical ventilation x 1000
total # of ventilator days for ICU patients 18 years and older

More patient-specific information is available at patientsafety